Documents and links

NFAS or affiliated

The goal of the CySiMS SE solution is to prove economical as well as security and safety benefits. This needs to be quantified and documented in a systematic way. The risk assessment methodology developed in CySiMS has been extended with ways to obtain input values needed to perform accurate assessments when there is no or little statistical data available. We have further developed it into a more complete Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) tool that can support security decision making. CySiMS-project.
Using digital signatures in the maritime domain - a more specific suggestion for a solutions to digital signatures in the maritime domain. From the CySiMS-project.
Digital signatures for nautical use - a general discussion of possibilities and posisble solutions. From the CySiMS-project.
Proposed terminology and definitions applicable to autonomous merchant shipping.
Memo on the benefits of establishing a common and standardized PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) for international merchant shipping. This has been developed by the CySiMS-project.
Proposed terminology proposed by ISO TC8 to IMO MSC 102. Note that "crewless" may be changed to "uncrewed".

Relevant international

Guidelines for Autonomous Shipping, October 2019, Guidance Note NI 641 R01.
SAE J3016 Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to Driving Automation Systems for On-Road Motor Vehicles. This is for cars, but has definitions and a structure that may be useful also for autonomous ships. It is free, although you have to "buy" it through the portal.
Danish Maritime Authority analyzes requirements to regulations of autonomous ships (in Danish only).
Lloyd's register Cyber safe resources, including definitions of autonomy levels. This consists of a ShipRight procedure and a guidance document.
Maritime Autonomous Systems Regulatory Working Group (UK): Voluntary Industry Code of Practice - Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships up to 24 metres in length. New version published November 2019.
ICS Releases New Study on Seafarers and Digitalisation
Autonomous and remotely operated ships, Edition 2018-09. Document code: DNVGL-CG-0264
Korea publishes technology assessment report on autonomous ships.
Class NK published this on May 2018. This is in addition to existing class rules on automatic and remote control systems.
The final report from a joint project between CORE Advokatfirma and Cefor on Maritime Autonomus Surface Ships (MASS) is now available. The main focus of this project has been to identify the main challenges, requested changes and elements of uncertainty that stakeholders describe when it comes to introduction of MASS from a civil liability and insurance perspective.
Maintains own and others' resources related to research and development needs in the maritime sector.
This publication summarizes widely known safety by design and verification and validation (V&V) methods of SAE L3 and L4 automated driving.
Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine. Various information about autonomous inland navigation.
American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) publishes advisory on autonomous ships.
EMSA has published a study on of the risks and regulatory issues of specific cases of MASS.
Circular related to building or installing automated fuinctionality with the purpose of partly or fully unmanned operation on ships (Norwegian only).
Part 4: Vocabulary contains definitions that may be of interest also for autonomous ships.
Safe mobile autonomous mining in Western Australia. Code of practice.


Various articles about autonomous driving and human factors from Elsevier.
Works with maritime law and has a working group on "Maritime Law for Unmanned Craft".
Japan's shipbuilders and maritime shippers are teaming up to make self-navigating ships a reality by 2025, hoping to lead global development on a project that should dramatically reduce accidents at sea. Participants including shippers Mitsui O.S.K. Lines and Nippon Yusen.
Established in Shanghai 28. June 2017. Leaders and industry experts from HNA Technology & Logistics Group, CCS, ABS, China Ship Development and Design Center, Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding (Group) Co., Ltd., 708 Research Institute of China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC), Rolls-Royce, 711 Research Institute of China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) and Wärtsilä China participated.
With a report from DTU on the future of Denmark in the area of autonomous ship and shipping.
Delft University operates this laboratory together with a number of other partners.
KU Leuven in Belgium has a research group on intelligent mobile platforms and is running two projects on autonomous inland waterway shipping.
A Dutch web pages containing resources mainly on Dutch and Belgian issues, but also some general information.
Various insights from maritime lawyers.

Test areas

The European Maritime Simulator Network (EMSN) can be used for simulations of autonomous ships in normal ship traffic, where the normal ships can be implemented in a network of simulators. The link points to a PDF file giving an overview of the EMSN.
Netherlands has designated all main waterways governed by the national government, subject to relatively strict conditions (see guidelines below), as test areas for autonomous vessels. The link is to the form interested parties can fill out when applying for a permit.
eMaritime Integrated Reference Platform, Germany. Not specifically for autonomous ships.
Marine Autonomy Research Site (MARS), Great Lakes region in USA and Canada. The area is in US waters.
Autonomous ship tests in Belgium/Flanders. Code of conduct is pointed to below and is also available from page.
The UK has a number of test areas for autonomous surface ships. A map can be found in the MASS code of practice from MASRWG.
Near Ålesund, has been opened as a test area for autonomous ships (May 2017).
Norway. Opened October 16th 2018.

Test area guidelines

Policy rules for experiments with extensive automated navigation in state waterways (Dutch only - google translate works ok).
Code of conduct for tests in Belgium/Flanders
An Industry Code of Practice A Voluntary Code Version 2, November 2018. Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships up to 24 metres in length
Interim guidelines for MASS trials. Submitted by Norway and BIMCO
Proposals for the development of interim guidelines for Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) trials. Submitted by Republic of Korea.
MSC 99/INF.13: Establishing international test area "Jaakonmeri" for autonomous vessels. Submitted by Finland.
Voluntary guidelines suggested by INAS, version 0.2. (DOCX).

Pictues and publication material

We have a group at flickr where you can find illustrations related to NFAS or Norwegian autonomous ship research. Have a look at the comment field for proper credit to the provider of teh material. There are also groups on linkedin (English) and facebook (Norwegian), where we will post general news.